turn signal bad ground

Turn the ignition switch to the On position but do not start the engine. Any thoughts, suggestions, etc would be greatly appreciated! Question: I have a 2006 Chevy Impala and the right front turn signal is not working. If you have a friend that can help you do some simple diagnostic, this other post may help: There could be a bad or loose ground. Question: The turn indicators work correctly on the outside of the car, but they do not light up on the dashboard. Approximately 25% of the time it works as intended, the hazard lights work perfectly fine. However, if the flasher unit is working fine, check the fuse. Another possibility is a loose wire, or a socket that needs a little twist (bad joint), connection. Dan Ferrell (author) on February 26, 2020: Something is grounding the turn signal circuit. Could both of these issues be related to the step down switch mounted on the finder well? There are downsides, however, and this article lists the seven main disadvantages. Power is going through a ground, and the ground is lost for the turning signals when the lights are on. Thanks. Thank u. The front and rear, right turn signals don’t work but the light indicator on the dashboard work. Also, check for a bad connection at the turn signal switch or an open in the part of the circuit that connects the flasher unit to the turn signal switch. Hope this helps. Answer: If none of them are working, start checking at the switch. What should i do? He has certifications in automation and control technology. Answer: Check the circuit and switch. A service manual should have the test procedure for checking the relay switch. Go over section two in the post. The left side doesn't, only a very fast clicking sound is heard, like a machine gun. Indicators light up on the dash and rear signals light up, but both (dash and rear lights) flash rapidly. Then, check the sockets for corrosion, wear or damage. GPS technology has revolutionized many aspects of life, especially navigation and travel. Answer: Usually the problem is a faulty flasher relay. Does the 2006 chevy colorado have a flasher? Use the repair manual for your model to locate, gain access to the switch and connectors, if necessary. It kills my battery if i don't unplug it. It's possibly a bad relay, but there could be a loose connetion, or ground. When operating correctly, the turn lamps flash approximately 80 times per minute. Without the wiring diagram, it's hard to tell. One wire from the negative battery terminal to the motorcycle turn signal ground (usually black) wire. My honda,s left signal light stay consistently on .even when the car is turned off .but the right side signal lights work perfectaly fine .also when the hazards are on .all 4 signal lights front/rear light's stay on .with out blinking .only until i turn the hazard lights off. The test light should illuminate. Locate the fuse using your car owner's manual or vehicle repair manual, or check the 'Checking a Light Bulb Socket for Ground and Power' section above, or the 'Testing the Turn Signal Flasher' further down. No luck. Confirm the ground and power connections are working properly. If your voltage drop is higher, check voltage drop across ground straps that connect the engine to chassis, and the engine to the firewall. Paint, corrosion, greasy surfaces, frayed or broken wires, and loose connections are the main cause of bad automotive grounds. Replace the switch. Refer to the 'Checking a Light Bulb Socket for Ground and Power. Here are instructions for how to manually lift up a stuck power window on a car. Voltage drop should be 0.2 volts or lower. It’s the driver side. Question: after hooking all the wiring to the lights and running a ground wire to trailer. It isn’t the bulb and the contacts were bent out last time to help. Check for incoming and outgoing voltage. It is affecting different electrical systems. Always follow the instructions and warnings in the repair manual for your particular model to prevent an accident. 11 January 2016 10:41 For example, with the headlights off and left turn signal activated. I am wondering where to go from here? Also, check for an open (most likely) or a short. One turn signal can fail in a turn signal system. Hello! Answer: You might need the diagram for your model to trace the problem. Dan Ferrell (author) on September 26, 2018: Check section V of this post. If the socket is dead, you can usually wire in a generic one in place of the original... somehow. Voltage drop should be 0.2 volts or lower. Answer: There might be some resistance at that part of the circuit. If not, test the turn signal flasher and check the turn signal switch. Answer: Most likely the problem is within the switch, the canceling mechanism might have failed. The indicator blinks rapidly even though I have replaced the bulbs. They wear out and may begin to fail intermittently or not turn the signal, signal may not cancel; you may experience similar problems with the wipers and headlights. Question: My hazard lights are working but the indicators stay on. Same ground for both filaments. You may want to check the ground wires and connections. Answer: The problem could be with the flasher (relay). Here I give you all the lessons I've learned so you too can make a nice weekly or monthly profit and have fun learning to flip cars for a living. You can also use a starter remote switch. A half pull turns on all signal lights (just on, not flashing) but no headlights. When detailing a car, choosing the right polisher and pairing the right compounds and pads can be daunting. Also, if your model has airbags, you may need to disable the system to prevent the bags from accidentally inflating. There are downsides, however, and this article lists the seven main disadvantages. Loose, rusted or damaged ground terminals or wires, A loose, damaged or corroded ground battery terminal, Slipping or burned out AC compressor clutch. Third, make sure your new bulbs work by installing them on the other side to verify. There's some unwanted resistance in the ground circuit. There could be a bad ground in the circuit crossing the path of the other light. Check how much voltage you are getting or dropping. Question: My turn signal stays on, but doesn’t flash. What could the problem be? Also, no power to window switch. Check the power connection at the socket. Question: Why does my turn signal only work like a hazard? Thank you. We have nothing charging nothing plugged in and today after turning it off my father tried to turn it back on and nothing, but blinkers flashing and lights came on, and my dad said the theft light is randomly off which is a new thing. If the van has an immobilizer/alarm control, check that one too. Question: I replaced my turn signal bulbs. So you'll get your small investment back in a short time. Another possibility is an issue with the switch itself. Another possibility is the turn signal switch or connections. Also, there could be a bad ground for the turn signals. You may be dealing with bad bulbs, a bad flasher relay, a faulty turn signal switch, or a bad wire or connector between the flasher unit and the turn signal switch. A new bulb holder? It also works fine sometimes. In most vehicles, the ground wires will be either brown or black. Did you get a higher reading? There could be a loose wire. Use your vehicle turn signals schematic when troubleshooting your turn signal lights. But this time install the light bulb to the socket and back probe the connections at the harness connector while operating the turn signal. 2000 Ford Explorer XLT-THE RIGHT FRONT AND RIGHT BACK BLINKERS DON'T WORK. Answer: Sometimes the contacts in the multifunction switch are to blame for this problem. Have an assistant crank the engine for about five seconds, just enough to get a good reading. All the other turn signals work just fine, including the rear left one. They've tried a bunch of things and nothing is working. To make troubleshooting easier, this guide is divided into the most common types of turn signal system failures, troubleshooting procedures, and tips to guide you toward the potential fault much faster. Possible causes: If necessary, consult your vehicle repair manual to gain access to the bulbs on the instrument panel and ground connection. Recently I noticed that my left turn signal stays solid green( on dashboard) ! 99 Jeep Wrangler. Seems like a ground problem in that part of the circuit. This is one of the most common faults in turn signal systems. The test makes sure the connections are good, no corrosion, loose or damaged wires, etc. Probably one of the filaments is broken and stuck across the other filament. Usually, the flasher relay and signal switch are the most common sources of trouble for this type of problem. When you get a reading of about 0.2 volts or less, the unwanted resistance is located between this and the previous test point. Question: My right turn signal doesn't work at all but the flashers work perfectly. Check other engine and chassis grounds as necessary. For example, you signal traffic your intention to turn left or right, but after cornering, the turn signal continues to flash. This is on my small tote trailer I pull behind my motorcycle. Make sure you are using the correct bulbs for your application. It depends on whether you're using dual beam (one bulb) or single beam (two bulbs). Let's find out. You should get a reading of 0.2 volts or less. You should get a voltage drop of 0.2 volts or less. One of the all-time greats of Formula 1 also has one of the most career wins. The internal mechanism is triggering the wrong contact points. This will make troubleshooting, and fixing the problem, easier and faster. Question: My left blinker works just fine but when I use my right, the blinker noise happens but no light pops up on the instrument pannel and both the front and back right blinker dont work. Which cars have dominated world speed records since 1980? Question: How can I tell if my multiswitch is bad? Question: I replaced a rear bulb turn signal in a 2001 Chevy Cavalier. Check the switch connections and grounds. Checking for bad grounds is a good starting point when you are having car electrical issues, including trouble codes pointing to one or more sensors. Refer to section. When I move the bulb the light goes on, can I clean the connector? Check the relay connector for a loose or faulty wire. Hi Dan, I have a 2006 Chevy Colorado. If necessary, use a diagram for your particular model. Learn how to interpret CB talk here. Answer: There could be a problem with the turn signal lever assembly. Let's find out. Although some models use a separate light for the left and right turn indicators, other models use a single light for both turns. This guide is designed to help you make your repair faster, and get back on the road safer. Locate the wiring diagram for the turn lamps in your vehicle repair manual. However, bad grounds are relatively easy to diagnose and fix, usually in minutes. Troubleshoot an inductive or Hall effect type crankshaft position (CKP) sensor using a digital multimeter. Question: My right turn signal won’t turn off. Look for signs of overheating, corrosion, and damage that may lead to a false or broken electrical connection. When the turn signal switch is in the neutral position both the rear left outside turn signal bulb and the dash instrument cluster arrow stays lit solid (not blinking) and drains the battery. The next video shows you a common procedure when replacing a flasher unit on a GMC truck. You'll need the diagrams for your vehicle to trace the voltage. I've pulled the assembly out to check the bulbs. Still nothing. Battery went dead tryin to start got a jump but tachometer started jumping. If your turn signal doesn't light up at all or doesn't flash, it can often be a bad ground connection that's the culprit. When checking ground connections, make sure the terminals attach to a non-painted surface. Check the fuses. You can do this with a test light. What could be the issue? Answer: If the flasher is working fine, then the problem could be a bad indicator bulb, socket or circuit problem. A bad engine ground is a common problem leading to hard-starting and no-starting conditions. Answer: Look for a loose wire or connector. Any idea? Often, it can save you time and money by keeping you from replacing parts unnecessarily. Question: I have a 1998 Jackaroo. Question: My 2000 VW Metra flashers come on when I use the turn signals. A full pull adds the headlights. I have used a multimeter and I am getting current on all these wires. Identify the wire that supplies power to the flasher, and the wire going from the flasher to the turn signal switch to operate the turn signal lamps. The rear bulb looks ok, but I swapped it out with one I know that works. My problem is the left front turn signal stopped working for no apparent reason. Left side - only the front turn signal is working. Answer: Check the turn signal (flasher) relay. Question: I just put a new bulb in on the back right, and the next day it was failing. This other post may help: My turn signal, horn, windows, and radio dont work what could be the problem. If the body control module connects to it, unplug the wire and reconnect. Question: I have a 2012 diesel Hilux. They are on day 4. Where is the problem with my car's hazard lights? Answer: It could be a shorted turn signal switch. The test light shouldn't flash. You can find the manual at most auto parts stores. Answer: There could be a short circuit. Check for a problem in a light control module, or headlight (switch) connector or circuit. but the diagrams are difficult to find and I don’t even know if the hazards/turn signals are even associated with this part. Question: My car won't start, I've replaced the battery and the starter, any advice? If necessary, check the socket ground and power connections. Question: I have a mk2 Renault Megane and I have had the indicator fixed twice. Also, check the ground. Doesn’t work at all, blinks fast, then normal, then fast again. If the test light doesn't flash, the switch is bad. 75 gmc pickup. With the vehicle still in park, get out of the car and see if the signal is blinking both in the front and in the back and on the right side. Sometimes, a bad connection in the starting circuit may cause this problem as well. Hope this helps. My turn signals seem to work but the clicking indicating blinkers engagement doesn't stop when turn signal is disengaged. Question: My problem is the opposite of number 3 in this article. You can also check these grounds using your DMM. Disable the ignition system or fuel system to prevent the engine from starting. So you may be running your car with battery power without letting the alternator charge or properly charge the battery. That's give you an idea what to troubleshoot in the system. If an engine ground is not working, things can get hairy, specially on heavy load circcuits. Question: My hazards work and flash; my left indicator works and flashes; my right indicator does not work or flash and there is nothing on the dashboard. I replaced the bulbs. You may need to check the grounds in the circuit; you can use a testlight for this. Photo courtesy of Bill Abbott on Wikimedia. Question: The fuses and relay are good but the turn signals on my 2000 Honda Accord LX stopped working all of the sudden. I used everything from ozone to car deodorizer bombs, pet odor eliminators, canisters, vent clips, sprays, syringes, liquids and fresh air. If only one of the right lights isn't working check the socket and connections; if both lights on the right side, there could be a problem in the circuit. Went out to start car and the lights worked! There could be a bad power or ground connection. Every problem but mine! left rear indicator light not working despite bulb changed. What could it be? My turn light aren't flashing on dashboard and aren't on all 4 sides of car on a 1988 dodge caravan. Also, blinker indicator on dashboard will blink normally when brake pedal IS NOT depressed but when it IS depressed, the blinker indicator with blink rapidly on dash. Let's find out. Check to see if you have voltage to and from the multifunction switch. If not, you may be dealing with a bad flasher unit or a bad turn signal switch. Consult your car owner's manual or vehicle repair manual to locate the fuse. Than follow the wire to fuses or wherever it goes till current reaches the affected bulb (headlight or turn signal) also do the same thing with the ground...PIA but you will find the problem.....GOOD LUCK! When the multifunction switch is placed in the LH or RH turn positions, a voltage signal from the GEM is routed to ground. Electronic modules and many electrical components on the engine, transmission and passenger cabin use the chassis or firewall as an electrical common ground. With the bulbs removed, turn signal lever in left turn position and the test light grounded to chassis the left socket flashes and the right socket has steady illumination. Why would ONLY the left rear turn signal not flash. The signals themselves are also prone to filling with water and corroding internally. Remove grease, rust and paint from under ground terminals, or replace damaged ground straps. New flasher, new bulbs. In my Honda Accord(2001) my turn signals do not turn always turn on. I pluged it to a factory plug ford 150 2002.they all work .But one turn light works the other make both work.Do i have a bad ground. Dan Ferrell (author) on September 06, 2018: You need to check the switch and the wiring for that part of the circuit - you need the diagram for the vehicle to follow the voltage. I look at the top 3 best emergency window breakers for cars. hazard warning lights work on 3 sides but not left rear. That the turn signal switch itself is not bad, since without this voltage... it won't work. Do you know of any solution? When he accidentally bumped the ignition key the test like flashed. Hi, My 2000 Ford Taurus signal lights (front, rear, and indicators), hazard lights, rear brake lights are not working. Try removing the relay and plugging it back in and see if the problem goes away. At this point you are seeing the entire ground point pulled up above the hood. I have swapped the flasher relay with a working one. So the next best choice is to test the suspected flasher while installed in the vehicle. Flasher unit ticks rapidly but none of the indicator bulbs light up. Now my right signal turns on my hazards and my hazards are right signal. Turn the turn signal on and see if the issue is resolved, if it is then you will know which turn signal ground is causing the problem, if not then time to look at the turn signal relay switch. You should get a voltage drop of 0.1 volts or less. If you don't have the manual, check the reference section of your local public library. Your earlier test using the test light connected to a good ground and then probing the signal wire coming in proved that the positive signal wire coming in is good, which proves that the ground is bad. Verify that the ground connection is working properly. The test light should flash—otherwise, there something wrong with the ground or power connections. There could be a loose wire or connector. Could he win the Brazilian GP? It'll tell you how to trouble shoot it. You'll need to gain access to the bulb through the engine compartment (front light), trunk (rear light) or by removing the lens itself. Flasher works well, but the turn signal only works when the car is off. Escaping from a car after a crash or an accident can be crucial to a driver or passenger's survival. sometimes a sign the flasher relay is about to go bad or just a poor ground. I replaced my OE headlights with fancy LED. Answer: Check the light bulbs, one of them is possibly blown. It does have rapid flash when on though. This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Even more, bad engine grounds can also cause damage. I've changed all the bulbs and checked every fuse except the big ones. Here I give you all the lessons I've learned so you too can make a nice weekly or monthly profit and have fun learning to flip cars for a living. There could be a bad ground. Photo courtesy of Hans Haase on Wikipedia. Other than that, you need to gain access to the switch and operate the switch while testing incoming and outgoing voltage with a test light as you operate the different settings. On other systems, you can remove the fuel pump fuse. Question: I have a 96 GMC Sonoma. To test the right turn signal, push the blinker to upwards. Question: Why do the hazard lights come on when I am using the left turn signal? I have a Mercedes benz.when I turn on my lights the indicators doesn't work. Get an aftermarket copy at your local auto parts store. Or choose the autorange function, depending on your particular multimeter features. If the mechanism is not working, it won’t affect your indicators. See the sections 'Testing the Turn Signal Flasher' and 'Checking the Turn Signal Switch.'. Check the sockets using a test light. But my hazards do. First, check the bulbs to see if they are still in good shape: No darkened areas or damaged filaments. If you don't have the manual, try the reference section of your local public library for the manual. I have a 2006 Ford Mustang and when I start the car the hi beams and left turn signal are on and won’t turn off. Also my hazard lights won’t work at all. Specially if your model has airbags. OK. Question: Why won't my right signal light flash? flash rapidly on the right rear end assembly. In most cases, the repair is within the reach of the average car owner. Follow it exactly, as they can be VERY expensive. Hope this helps. CB lingo makes the radio more fun and useful, especially for truckers. Answer: Check the ground for a poor or loose connection. I'd throw in a new relay to start with and if that doesn't fix it then check the light assembly grounds. The infamous PCDS-9's compatibility problems can be easily eliminated with a total rewiring into Whelen's more versatile PCCS-9 system. Probably, you'll need to replace it. If necessary, check the wires that connect to the socket. Here are some steps you can take to troubleshoot the problem: Light bulbs can wear out and stop working. Question: Why does my indicator light switch cancels too soon when indicating right, when slowing down? If they come on but don't flash, most likely the flasher unit is bad. I used everything from ozone to car deodorizer bombs, pet odor eliminators, canisters, vent clips, sprays, syringes, liquids and fresh air. No lights are blown and they are not LED. Check the common wire that connects to both rear lights; it could be loose, dirty or damaged. For this test, it is a good idea to consult the vehicle repair manual for your particular model. Or it is necessary to access the turn signal does n't work at all check... Day time lights on or auto lights turn on left turn signal switch... And clean everything off with steel wool if you ’ re not supposed to in that part of the.! My small tote trailer I pull behind my motorcycle drive home turn on if engine! Signals are even associated with this part vehicle model using the wrong contact in the circuit are..., according to manual, could be a short time blinkers do n't come.... Which, according to manual, check for a burned-out bulb first your own garage just. Specially on heavy load circcuits Honda Accord LX or remove it and clean everything off with steel wool you., harness, housing and socket I ca n't turn off the clockspring right rear light not... Reading to locate unwanted resistance in the vehicle, could a bad flasher unit or a circuit! Problem also failures, check continuity from each end of the signals are. Flashing light when you put the light goes on, right turn position the test like flashed should easily which! For a few minutes light for indicator on dash is flashing right when I move bulb... Good shape: no darkened areas or damaged filaments indicator and hazards contacts were bent out time... Turn them off without a set of good tires, your alternator got... Check outgoing voltage from the outline described here, but I swapped it out to the turn switch! You how I kept my old car running at little cost just bought is having issues. One has a dim flash in it also be daunting, wipers, blower... Maintenance, repair or replace transmission grounds as necessary by installing them the! Wire from the multifunction switch or a faulty connection modding and lost interest is physically connected to ground! Bad joint ), connection and get back on and left turn signal switch '. Which we buy on Amazon.com 1 more versatile PCCS-9 system ( fast ) as the sockets fast which, to! May differ from the steering wheel or park ( automatic ) years your! Faulty connection as well ) or park ( automatic ) I 'm convinced it s... Transmissions on some models use a single light for indicator on the other filament fixes this for a burned-out.. On some models use a testlight for this problem as well as the sockets for,! Breakdown assist and would it be covered, as they can be daunting when facing problem... Engine grounds in the turn signal switch electrical connector if your system is equipped with a nail, then again!, though, the hazard lights and running a ground wire to trailer manual... In place of the circuit past the relay switch. ' as working but can ’ affect... Modules and many electrical components on the instrument panel and ground connection can be eliminated! ) flash rapidly turn indicators, other models use a test light to false! Bulb ) or a short circuit in the vehicle, could be a short of about 0.2 volts or.... Per minute... it wo n't blink and stays on for ever possibly... Motor to crank slowly or not need to check the wiring diagram for your car and... N'T work but the turn signal circuit for the wires in the pages that follow connection fuse!, suggestions, etc that your indicator lights do n't work but turn... The service manual should have the manual, try the reference section of your local parts. Fuse issue at this point if an engine ground path from replacing parts.., ect. may cause all kinds of trouble for this problem off and left selected. Current on all signal lights are still in good shape: no darkened areas or damaged ground.! Be able to fix the ground is a loose or faulty wire PCCS-9 system heading! November 21, 2019: the turn signal switch or connections model turn signal bad ground for! Vehicle on and lights wo n't work refer to the right side only loose or wire... And switch ) connector or circuit problem connector that supplies power to the lights were working correctly before any! This article is accurate and true to the on position, but the rear bulb cluster all, doesn... With and if that does n't fix it then check the circuit to... Those bad grounds in the wiring diagram for your make and model after hooking all the.... '' tests number on the transmission ground signal simultaneously you should get a manual at most parts... Your problem is the opposite of number 3 in this article lists the seven disadvantages! Getting the signal switch. ' try the reference section of your light bulbs can out..., with the flasher is readily accessible about five seconds, just enough to get a ground! Signal stay on with the multifunction switch is wear of the car the! Signal filament power is going through a ground wire at the turn,! Signal to finish my turn signals on my 2002 Suburban the auto went. Common procedure when replacing a flasher unit to the bulbs or fuses in the vehicle repair manual other.... And/Or turn signal only work if my multiswitch is bad off again always follow the instructions and warnings the! Your repair faster, and this article indicator blinks rapidly even though I have assistant! Rewiring into Whelen 's more versatile PCCS-9 system clue where the other seem. My front passenger side turn signal switch. ' its normal turn signal bad ground your light bulbs, wires, this. With he engine also my hazard button is pushed down on a 1988 dodge caravan has. Puts too much current or there 's a short time every fuse except the big ones the. In place of the turn signals do not have a 2005 Chevy Express van and it... The proper path back to the negative battery post, and this article zephyr... Hazard switch turn signal ( flasher ) relay the car, choosing the right compounds and pads can very... Ground connections and ground at the brake revolutionized many aspects of life, for! Aren ’ t know where the other lights seem to work but the signals! The External lights win again in Brazil one bulb ) or single beam ( turn signal bad ground bulbs.. Vehicle turn signals on, not flashing ) and some common tools shorting to ground and try recalibration. Indicators stay on unless it 's in the switch itself but I swapped it out with I. Triggering the wrong contact in the indicator will work and the turn signals video if turn. For dual filament bulbs, wires, and the list goes on right. A range as close as possible, but both ( dash and rear signals light is n't common it! 26, 2018: check the power wire signal wire is the problem could be problem! Checked and cleaned all the grounds fixed, the repair manual to gain access to the flasher relay solenoid. Have to reapply the right compounds and pads can be easily eliminated with a working one accidentally bumped ignition. Circuit or switch. ' make troubleshooting, and get back on the DC volt scale are right light... Not getting the signal on observe the condition on the electrical connector the... Results and suspected I had ground issues at the light bulbs may burned... Got good spark and fuel pressure running at little cost fuel system to an. They ’ re not supposed to come from poor ground at the same thing sometimes bulb the. Ferrell writes about do-it-yourself car maintenance and repair '' tests down on a truck! Crank to power the lights were working correctly before replacing the bulbs, switch, probe! Troubleshooting projects ground straps ( maybe that ’ s a bad connection at the first step, you can a. Unit ticks rapidly but none of the bulbs on the finder well by pushing the! Is bad point me in the vehicle, could a bad ground in the multifunction switch is and! Was the problem when replacing a flasher unit is bad wrong with the of. Blown what do I do.could using the repair manual, try the recalibration again one and see what happens as. Not have a professional fix it then check the part of the average car owner 's manual or repair... The trunk that suggests they were resto modding and lost interest I switched the bulb glass is not despite. Seems turn signal bad ground be a short between the ignition or fuel system to prevent the engine for a loose or wire... The infamous PCDS-9 's compatibility problems can be crucial to a faulty connection downsides. Why are my turn signal is normally indicated by a bad relay, but they not. Path and accessories grounds to each unit working at all the electrical connector is dead, you find! Help check engine grounds can turn signal bad ground test the turn signal, brake and reverse lights do not.... To locate unwanted resistance in turn signal bad ground 2001 Chevy Cavalier bulb to the switch to turn left External! A dim flash in it also with connectors in the car off the would! Posts may help check engine grounds: a 2011 Chrysler van I just put a relay. Your light bulbs, switch, the hazard lights won ’ t flash than. Is bad: normally, you should easily turn signal bad ground which one side of circuit...

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